Collaboration

participation and collaboration are concepts at the heart of this reform process. Participation refers to the inclusion of all stakeholders in providing ideas and joining in implementation efforts. Collaboration refers to the need for the various stakeholders to agree on certain approacher and work together to implement those approaches (Atagi, 2002: 45).

Collaboration among the participants provides a solid foundation for a new approach of community involvement in teaching-learning. This kind of collaboration did not happen itself. The remote schools have been able to establish significant change (Atagi, 2002: 46).

In RDL project, khemmani (2006: 121) reported that collaboration among teachers is a factor to promote the education reform in all 135 schools.

It is also clear that collaboration is an important part of any action research project. Collaboration with others can provide the support the teacher needs to be successful (Briscoe and Wells, 2002: 419).. It provides opportunities for teachers to receive and give help and more importantly to talk about meaning of change (Briscoe & Peters, 1997; Fullan, 1982 cited by Briscoe and Wells, 2002: 419).

Collaboration also allows for discussion and dialog that may be a primary method of producing cognitive structural growth in the learner and new solutions to problems examined in the research process (Vygotsky, 1978 cited by Briscoe and Wells, 2002: 419).

Collaborative environment can catalyze and support teachers' belief to change (Briscoe and Wells, 2002: 422).

This sense of group identity, and feelings of deep satisfaction generated by the collaborative enterprise, not only persisted but become even stronger during the lifetime of the project. There appear to be a number of significant elements: recognition that other teachers have many of the same sorts of problems, though some problems are context-specific; a chance to look at things from a variety of perspectives and to listen to alternative arguments and rationales; the opportunity to learn about someone else's solution to a common problem; and ,crucially, the chance to take part in brainstorming activities and to engage in mutual support and criticism. Contributing to group deliberations would seem to be one of the key elements in teacher empowerment (Pedretti and Hodson, 1995: 479).

An analysis of the factors conductive to the success of the whole-school reform confirms that participation in conceptualization and solving technical problems and those related to personnel administration by the local researchers has accelerated collective efforts within the schools, resulting in speedier and more effective school reform (Nonglak Wiratchat cited by Piya-Ajariya, 2002: 13-14).

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