The Thailand Research Fund has encouraged and supported a team of researchers to conduct the RDL project to search for strategies, directions, and models for effective learning reform in 2001 (Khemmani, 2006: 118).
The project was conducted by 135 schools in 34 provinces from four regions of Thailand (Khemmani, 2006: 118).
A whole-school approach was used (Khemmani, 2006: 118).
Method(Khemmani, 2006: 118):
Each school selects or develop an instructional/educational innovation that it wants to use to promote specific students learning outcomes.
All teachers in the school implement and revise their innovation/instructional processes to suit the learners and with a view to obtaining maximum learning outcomes.
There are academic and financial supports from administrators to teachers (Khemmani, 2006: 118).
There are four effective strategies to successful reform:
Continuous Internal Supervision
- Supervision in an amicable manner or amicable supervision
Amicable supervision is the kind of supervision that benefits learning and allows for adjustment of the teachers' paradigm and behavior (khemmani, 2006: 119). There is a need to help teachers to understand and value the new (learner-centered) approach. If the supervision is not amicable, it is hard to win the hearts of teachers and teachers' development fails accordingly (khemmani, 2006: 119). The essential characteristics of amicability are friendliness, respects, positive thinking, and faith in the potential of those being supervised. Qualities also include being tactful, having a way with words, being able to explain, being able to give consultation that is to the point, and being able to provide appropriate reinforcement (khemmani, 2006: 199). These are consistent with kalyanamitta (good friend) proposed by Amornvovat 2004 (khemmani, 2006: 119).
- Supervision that employs the process of cognitive coaching
The supervision that employs the process of cognitive coaching can help teachers to change their internal thinking resulting in a change of behavior. The cognitive coaching is helping teachers to form their thinking process, examine their thinking and action, and improve their way of looking at things. It also is helping teachers to seek alternatives to the solution of problems, see the value of work they have done, and stimulate intrinsic motivation (khemmani, 2006: 119). These can help teachers to develop skills of thinking, skills of learning, and awareness and understanding of self-improvement resulting improvement of their performance (khemmani, 2006: 119).
- Supervision that builds on prior experience
It should emphasize: consultation based on prior experiences and performances of teachers; acceptance of feelings; development of knowledge as well as training in work skills related teachers' needs; provision of advice in a one-on-one, relaxing and friendly atmosphere; design of supervision for teachers on an individual basis; activities to share learning experiences; process of conveying ideas and experiences that does not make teachers feel that they are taught or lectured (khemmani, 2006: 120).
The author also provides the activities.
Exchanges of ideas/experiences
Schools should provide opportunities for teachers to meet regularly and share experiences. The meeting took a variety of forms, formal and informal, either among groups of people in the same school or from several different schools (khemmani, 2006: 120). Sharing ideas and experiences can be used as a strategy that allow teachers to improve themselves (khemmani, 2006: 120). the activities can help teachers more relaxed and feel less stressed; provide teachers opportunities to reflect on their previous thoughts and actions; help teachers to identify problems and find new way to solve; provide teachers to learn from other teachers; promote relationship among teachers. Moreover this can provide information to administrators (khemmani, 2006: 121).
Encouragement of community participation in the reform process
Orientation meeting to inform parents the objective and procedures of schools; teaching demonstration; producing material to give parents information; inviting parents and commuity members to join in the school committee; allowing parents to visit classroom; providing opportunities teachers to one-on-one discussion with parents; inviting school committee and publish to observe teachers training; inviting parents to help schools as guest speakers or experts; inviting parents to join academic activities (khemmani, 2006: 122).
Dissemination of innovation
Dissemination of innovation can expand learning network (khemmani, 2006: 122). Dissemination of innovation is not just a means to share knowledge and experiences with others, but also a strategy yo sustain and renew strength and development at the same time. Advantages include: teachers are more enthusiastic, paying more attention on their work, thinking more analytically and reflectively; the relationship among teachers are improved during giving assistance among them; teachers participate the academic communities in higher level; teachers play a greater role in the development of schools and students; creating informal network of learning among teachers in different schools; making teachers feel more confident and sense of pride in their work (feeling of self-worth); developing confidence and a good attitude toward the organization of learning, toward research, toward teaching career; promoting understanding of organization and of learning (khemmani, 2006: 123).