Teachers lack of solid understanding of a student-centered approach (such as project-based learning) (Pillay, 2002: 11-12).
Teachers have misunderstanding of the underlying principles of new teaching and learning approaches (Pillay, 2002: 15).
Many teachers have not had any training since they graduated some 20 or more years ago and certainly no training in new teaching and learning methods (Pillay, 2002: 22).
Inservice teachers can not be taken away from classroom, they may not have access new information. Therefore, there is an urgent need to direct resources to developing and planing the delivery of inservice training (Pillay, 2002: 22).
Teachers still do not appreciate the need for change or what is new in the student-centered learning approaches to teaching (Pillay, 2002: 26).
Teachers are not familiar with the new teaching and learning theories and the associated methods (Pillay, 200: 27).
Although most school administrators and teachers were rated as having good qualification and work ethics, about half of the teachers needed to improve their abilities to facilitate aspects of student-centered learning, and to search for knowledge, think analytically, conduct research, and create a body of knowledge (ONEC, 2001b, pp.55-57 cited by Atagi, 2002: 24).
Moreover, for many teachers, the principles and practices of learning reform are difficult to understand. The new concepts introduced in this reform movement, for example, learning-by-doing, learner-centered approach, local curriculum development, action research, and authentic assessment, are intimidating since it is directly and indirectly questioning their everyday teaching practices (Atagi, 2002: 40).
If teachers misunderstand about the learner-centered approach, teachers might think that they will become stand-by instructors, who do not prepare lessons, assuming it is the students' responsibility to initiate their own learning (Atagi, 2002: 51).
The phase "buffalo-centered approach" present a gap between learning reform policy and implementation (Atagi, 2002: 51).
Teachers feel alone, and that teachers need someone to talk to (Atagi, 2002: 57). There are many good teachers sitting in their classrooms feeling isolated, paralyzed, and disenfranchised (ASCD, 1999 cited by Atagi, 2002: 57).
Although there is also an effort to train teachers to produce digital content in Thailand, due to the lack of resources, both hardware and software, and heavy teaching loads, teachers have not been able to develop their ICT skills. Hence, they do not utilize ICT for teaching and learning (Atagi, 2002: 61).
Only small number of teachers welcomed and willingly accepted a shift (from teacher-centered to student-centered) (khemmani, 2006: 119).
The large majority of teachers either resisted the change or remained neutral (khemmani, 2006: 119).
Fry (2002: 23) cited Pillay that many teachers do not have proper teacher training qualifications. Teachers are for the most part out of touch with current and progressive approaches to teaching. Teachers are inadequately prepared for preparing students for the rapidly emerging knowledge society. The limited capability in english of many thai educators adversely affects their opportunities to be aware of diverse best practices around the world in the pedagogy area. Moreover, there is a skepticism about the readiness of thai teachers to adopt the new approach to learning.