Traditional Teacher Practices

Teachers are required to follow rigid curriculum (Pillay, 2002: 8).

Teachers have used teacher-centered approaches (i.e. "chalk and talk") for a long time (Atagi, 2002: 15; Pillay, 2002: 11; Khemmani, 2006: 119)

Ironically, Harn-Asa (2002: 4) points that "If implementation of this policy means using the learner-centered teaching approach in classroom, approximately 10% of teachers have implemented the policy. If it refer to the the production of the learner-centered teaching documents, most teachers have implemented it". She shows some senses that teachers' actual practices may not agree with their documents (Harn-Asa, 2002: 8).

The prevailing practice of teaching, teachers lecturing to submissive students, is most prevalent at the secondary education level, especially at the upper secondary level in which teaching focuses on students preparing to take the nationally administered university entrance examination. The examination focuses on reproducing the subject matter, and accordingly, leads to the practice of rote memorization (Atagi, 2002: 24).

In the traditional approach, teachers drilling students, lectures, and seatwork are major instructional modes. Teachers maintain control of classroom activities and students work towards master of skills (Atagi, 2002: 52).

Transferring of knowledge from teacher to student, with an emphasis on textbooks, has long been a major practice of most schools throughout the country. This learning process has engendered boredom and passivity on the part of learners, and the lack of inquisitive minds and eagerness to learn has resulted in low achievement in most subjects. Learners also lack training in how to think and in building character. Perseverance, dedication to work, and honesty, as well as moral and aesthetic values and pride in national art and culture, have not been well inculcated (Khemmani, 2006: 117).

Many teachers in the national pilot project have not integrated assessment as part of the teaching-learning process, while the majority of teachers have not been able to link their work with the schools' quality assurance (Nonglak Wiratchai cited by Piya-Ajariya, 2002: 13)

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